For several years now several Behavior Researchers and philosophers have scratched their heads in determining exactly what the word personality means. They’ve develop several models to define this single word &ldquopersonality&rdquo. With regards to Linda V. Berens (1999) She defines personality in Salvatore Maddi&rsquos words as &ldquoA stable group of qualities and habits that determine individuals goods and variations within the mental behavior (ideas, feelings, and actions) of folks that have continuity over time which might not be easily understood because the sole consequence of the social and biological pressure from the moment&rdquo (p.1)
Based on (Linda V.Berens 2002.p2) She quotes Carl Jung&rsquos statement in determining personality as below &ldquoThe Self is our existence&rsquos goal, for this is the fact that completest expression of this fateful combination we call individuality&rdquo
Based on D.A Louw (1998) he defines Personality because the totality of characteristics namely intentions, feelings, values, attitudes, habits and cognition that handle identifying ones behavior through their interaction using their atmosphere. (p.12)
Personality is a contentious subject for more than several years now, with a few classical behavior researchers quarrelling that personality is inborn with other people insisting that it’s acquired or learnt through our interaction using the atmosphere we live. Nevertheless the modern school of behavior researchers has contended that personality is both acquired through conditioning through the atmosphere we communicate with as well as inborn (Salvatore R.Maddi, 1976.p.9). Jung and Freud are the famous behavior researcher which has created a mark in study regarding human personality by utilization of some ideas in attempting to enhance its relevancy.
Within my research into the personality ideas l is going to be attempting to assess the whole shebang of Sigmund Freud which of Carl Jung. The whole shebang of the two behavior researchers was interested at explaining why individuals from exactly the same experience, motivation and hereditary may respond in a different way to some common situation and , Why individuals from different experience, motivation and hereditary may respond much like a typical situation.
Sigmund Freud may be the brain behind the Psychoanalysis theory of contemporary personality ideas, through this theory Freud argues that it is on two factors that human personality relies that’s the an &ldquounconscious&rdquo and also the Libido quite simply referred to as &ldquopsychic energy&rdquo. Freud further argues that personality first evolves the &ldquoi.d&rdquo the primitive ingredient that works based on the instinctive principle of enjoyment. Then your &ldquoego&rdquo this works based on the principle of reality which is accountable for making choices. Finally developing the &ldquosuper ego&rdquo accountable for understanding what&rsquos right and just what&rsquos wrong so far as social moral standards are concern (W.Weiten, M A.Lioyd, D S.Dunn, and E Y.Hammer 2008.p36).
Based on (Barlow DH, Durand VM, 2005) while examining the intrapsychic conflicts they consider the &ldquoi.d&rdquo as the irrational, irrational and emotional area of the psyche, it puts pressure alternatively two. The &ldquoego&rdquo may be the rational and logical area of the psyche that exhibits reality, they proceed to state that this is actually the most typical trait in humans. The &ldquoego&rdquo tries to moderate or strike an account balance between your i.d and also the &ldquosuperego&rdquo. Lastly the 2 consider the &ldquosuper ego&rdquo because the conscience. it is viewed as negligence a psyche that keeps the morals. Once the &ldquoego&rdquo becomes over operated by the 2 it exhibits violent responses targeted at taking charge from the situation. Freud calls these responses defensive systems Displacement, fantacy,intellectualization,repression or suppression,Reaction-Formation,rationalization,sublimation,Projection and denial .In the work Sigmund compares the &ldquoi.d &ldquoand &ldquosuperego&rdquo to be unconscious(p.18-21).
Richard Niolon (1999) in the P.H.D paper clearly analyses Freud&rsquos creates personality theory with focus on the defense mechanism showed through the &ldquoego &ldquowhile counteracting the 2 &ldquoi.d and also the super ego&rdquo. He examines Displacement as away of staying away from feelings which are uncomfortable. For instance a boy smashing his toys after being punished through the parent within this situation the boy feels safe as his toys won’t have adverse impact on him because it could have been if he’d tried to lash back at his parent.
Richard further examines Sublimation as the second defense mechanism in Sigmund&rsquos work. He relates sublimation to displacement but distinguishes them since within the former it’s negative whilst in the latter it’s positive. A good example is really a Rape victim drumming up support for that enactment of laws and regulations to ensure maximum sentence for rape culprits.
Projection is an additional defensive mechanism as contended by Freud. Within this it’s that act of walking from a scenario that’s a part of us. This could be either negative or positive however in some way we still feel guilty.
Freud&rsquos discussion from the defensive mechanism also touches on Fantasy the development of a mental picture of enjoyable things much more actual existence there is nothing on your side this what’s also called day fantasizing.
Richard further examines Rationalization up to now another defense mechanism .it was derived fro the fable of Aesop or what is known &ldquoSour grapping&rdquo Intellectualization is an additional of Sigmund Freud&rsquos defense systems, This requires walking from ones feelings, for instance not feeling discomfort since you are meditation on another thing.
Denial is another mechanism that’s introduced forth by Freud as talked about by Richard, it requires declining to simply accept the truth. For instance an individual rejecting his/her Aids status results once they turn positive. This is a type of defense mechanism in modern existence.
Repression or suppression is an additional defense mechanism. This requires cupping up our feelings if you attempt not to accept the problem we’re in through consoling ourselves the situation doesn’t exist although it does in tangible essence.
Withdrawal another of Freud&lsquos defense mechanism connected using the personality theory it calls for shutting out occasions or reminiscences that will restore the painful encounters you&rsquove had previously. For instance a woman physically mistreated while becoming an adult staying away from any situations that exhibit violence.
Finally defense systems are a kind of saving us from uncomfortable situation but over reliance upon them can greatly effect on our personality, for instance suppression in and withdrawal entangled in fantasy can change one right into a remorseless, alienated and depressed person.
Freud also used the psychosexual procedures in attempting to explain the introduction of personality. Within this argument he saw an individual as developing personality through five psychosexual stages. He further argues that key encounters and tasks each and every stage leave a lasting mark on ones personality in their adult existence. These were namely The Dental stage (-1years) here the kid&rsquos attention is dependant on orally as a result it sucks and bites more often than not. Weaning happens at this time,(ii)The Rectal stage (2-three years)at this time the kid is potty trained on excretion being not congratulations the kid eventually ends up being untidy later on.(iii)The Phallic stage(4-5),here the kid&rsquos attention is focused on the Genital area masturbation takes hold. They copy their heroines as well as get the Oedipal complex(boys)and Elektra complex(women).(iv)Latency stage(6-12) here the kid attempts to make more buddies and evolves less repression towards sex.(v)Finally Freud discusses the Genital/Adolescence stage(13+)here the kid attempts to uncover his/her sexuality by looking into making intimate buddies and becomes an energetic person in society through work. Sigmund concludes his psychosexual development theory on personality by worrying when one does not move methodically with the stages they could be stagnant at that point a component he describes as &ldquofixation&rdquo (W.Weiten, M A.Lloyd, D S.Dunn, and E Y.Hammer 2008.p39).
Carl Jung a Mental health specialist of Swiss origin developed the analytical theory in attempting to explain personality. Jung agreed with Freud around the unconscious aspect like a determinant of personality, But he further went ahead to separate the unconscious into two where he known as one the private unconscious which directly fits with Sigmund&rsquos .Also, he discusses the collective conscious .Jung defines the collective unconscious like a traces of latent memory inherited from your ancestral history that people employ while interacting with others. Jung uses the term &ldquoarchetypes &ldquowhile mentioning to those inherited reminiscences .They’re thought forms and pictures which are billed psychologically with meanings of universal significance. These images pop-in dreams and manifest themselves symbolically in art, religion and literature through culture.Jungs works were apparent in the extraversion-introversion personality ideas (W.Weiten, M A.Lloyd, D S.Dunn, and E Y.Hammer 2008.p41).
Based on (John Sommers-Flanagan, Rita Sommer-Flanagan 2004.p115).Jung&rsquos jobs are completely different from those of Freud for the reason that as Sigmund Naturalized the spiritual world, Jung however dwelled on instincts and drives the main gamers in the realm of character. Jung&rsquos work brings about the 2 personas of humans the introvert and extravert. In the argument Jung argues that the introvert is really a person indicated with a reflective, reluctant behavior heOrshe keeps to his/herself, also defensive thus decides to cover in mistrustful critique.
While however the Extravert is indicated by an accommodating, candid and outgoing character that may easily adjust and adjust to any situation. An extravert always miracles in to the unknown without thinking about the effects and simply attaches to other people. Jung adds that extravert instead of introverts sex buddies and likes social events.
Based on (Gerald Corey 2009,p.76) Despite Freud searching at Jung because the predecessor to his work Jung went ahead in attacking the Sigmund Freud Psychosexual development theory of personality to be over emphatic on sexually as component that shapes human personality .Both Alfred Adler and Carl Jung emerged using their own ideas in attempting to explain personality. Jung thus grew to become the proponent from the analytical theory of personality .Based on (Adam &Shultz, 2005) The Jung analytical theory was a more sophisticated description of humans that includes ideas from anthropology, history, religion and mythology. In the work Jung compares the middle age where he stresses that certain needs to shade from the figures of his childhood after getting this stage.
The 2 researchers Freud and Jung also differed within their work for the reason that as Freud contacted the unconscious by searching in internet marketing as materials covered up. Jung seen the unconscious because the existence&rsquos matrix of recent options he contended the conscious is introduced to existence through the unconscious (Barbara Engler 2008.p71).
The bottom line is Personality is a component that may be seen and defined in not just one but a number of ways as clearly presented by two finest personality theorist within the names of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Within their Psychoanalysis and analytical ideas correspondingly. Therefore, it is to be able to state that this two mental theorist&rsquos has assisted a good deal in explaining human personality.